Friday, February 29, 2008

Sustainable Agriculture


The topic of this paper research is to produce food ceaselessly without cause damage to the environment, to bring economic profits, and improve community relationship. The main purpose of this topic is to show sustainable agriculture as the best alternative for farmers and countries indicating the reasons. Sustainable agriculture is the best alternative to produce food because conserves environment, brings social benefits for communities, increases the Gross National Product (GNP), and needs diversification.

Johanna's Weblog

we can not avoid GM food

The topic of the essay is the new food supply called genetically modified food. It claims the people should develop the GM food. There are three reasons for the conclusion. The first is that GM food could solve the food crisis, next, the GM food could protect the environment . At last, the GM food will make much more money.

Land Reform for Human Race

Research Paper Proposal

I learned about “Biodiversity: Sustaining Soils and Producing Food” in Core class, so I was interested in land reform. Land reform is a change in the system of land ownership, especially when it involves giving land to the people who actually farm it and taking it away from people who own large areas for profit. Land reform can create new kinds of profits with estate use, land adjustment, and land improvement. According to Bruce’s article (2005), “El Charcote, a British cattle ranch in central Venezuela, has been singled out by the government as the launch-pad for its new push towards land reform” (para. 1). Land reform can be helped people who want to need land and land conservation. Knox (2003) reported that “Land reform has been one of the totems of the Scottish Parliament since its inception that it should finally give the land of Scotland back to the people of Scotland” (para. 3). In fact, land reform is against the spirit of democracy among some people today.

In my paper, I plan on writing that because land reform is one of solutions about various problems of estate. First of all, land reform is a good solution to the problem of limited land use because it makes the best use of land. Next, because land reform is possible in both productivity effects and land development, it should be enforced. In addition, land reform can stabilize the value of land because nowadays everything is becoming the object of speculation. Finally, land reform makes economic growth, so it is a good policy for human race.

I have found some articles that give land reform’s efficiency, advantages and disadvantages. In addition, I have found useful websites that will help me talk about the situations in countries that have adopted land reform programs.

Population Crisis

Have you ever heard population control policies? You might have heard them in the various mass media. We also learned about population control in educational programs. Presently, all the countries of the world are painfully anxious about the problem of overpopulation. In addition, today the earth has many kinds of serious problems of environment and endangered species because of an increase in population. People wonder whether population control policies should be put in place or not. In fact, population control policies have been in force to all the countries of the world and they show us several point of excellence: environmental preservation, better educational system, and improving welfare policy.

First of all, population control policies provide protection for serious problems of environment. The earth is limited to a fixed natural resources and land. Technological development has been quite remarkable in recent years, however, because of it, we have made the mining industry, reckless deforestation, land development and various indiscriminative industrial developments. As the result, we got many kinds of serious pollution, endangered species, even an international crisis like an ozone layer problem. However, we can protect our environmental problems and various natural resources when we give effect to population control policies. For example, people cannot create new land development and they also can economize natural resources. Moreover, we cannot need a territorial dispute for exploitation of resources and an ecosystem can sustain to ecological pyramid because they are lived the natural world by decreasing of population. In conclusion, we need to population control policies for environmental preservation.

Next, population control policies give us improving educational system. As the world advances in civilization, humans receive many kinds of new education and technical education. However, some people can not receive many kinds of curriculums because congestion of population has a wide gap between the rich and the poor. Population control policies make an offer various education and more systematic educational programs for many kinds of people. Government can make reform of educational system easily, so many kinds of people can receive individual upbringing. People can obtain a home education class and government can cultivate men of talent systematically. For example, People can receive an internet lecture, a small number of students in each class, the high-tech educational program. Uneducated people also can receive some education at various educational institutions. Finally, countries that are used population control policies can create many kinds of specialists or professional managers, so government can invest their money to make better new educational system. In conclusion, we can get great educational system because of population control policies.

Finally, countries which used population control policies can make better welfare society, so we will be live in prosperity, enjoying the blessings of welfare policy. As the world advances in civilization, people can live long and they want to need the high quality of lives. For example, if we get in an accident, government gives us medical insurance benefits and we can also use various facilities for the sake of convenience. We also don’t worry about the state of employment and the percentage of employment because government try to promote national prosperity. We can receive an improvement in living standards. Government can create better urban and environmental plan conveniently in town. They can also build many kinds of Natural Park and invest their money in the beauty of a city. For example, Ulsan is an industrial city in Korea so that Ulsan got serious problems of environmental pollution and government in Ulsan could not promote national prosperity. However, Ulsan is one of population control policies cities. Nowadays Ulsan has a clear river, many kinds of welfare facilities, very big Natural Parks and makes natural areas in the midtown area beautiful, so most of people in Ulsan generally enjoy their lives. In conclusion, population control policies can make better a welfare state.

Some people or some less developed countries don’t want population control policies put in place because they believe that a great many people create higher productivity and economic growth. They also believe that the number of population is economic power and state power. However, population control policies should be put in place because many countries that used population control policies create economic prosperity and the protection of environment. As we know, population control policies offer more money for each person. People in countries that are used population control policies earn a large income. Most of an income levels in less developed countries have a small income and they usually have a work at light industries because they have too many human resources, but most of people who believed population control policies make money to extensive fields of works more than people who don’t believed population control policies. Another point is that the hours of labor. People who don’t want population control policies have more physical labor works longtime, especially; they often don’t find a place to work because too many people want to get some jobs from restriction on employment. However, governments in population control policies try to shorten working hours. For instance, people in population control policies usually work an eight-hour day, five days a week in their companies. In conclusion, population control policies should be put in place for the quality of life.

In conclusion, for the growth of a country, population control policies should be put in place. Population control policies give people a good chance. The main points are environmental preservation, more good educational system, and a welfare policy. Therefore, we have to protect the earth and try to reduce the number of population for the future generation. From our efforts, our future generation will be provided a place with good surroundings and a stable livelihood.

Land Reform for Human Race


The topic of this paper is land conservation for human race. It argues that human beings should use an effective land reform for the next generation. There are three reasons for this argument. The first is that land reform will enable the increase of the productivity, and the second is that land reform can create economic growth and news kinds of jobs. Finally, land reform can stabilize the value of land because today everything is becoming the object of speculation

Thursday, February 28, 2008

Watch out!!! A silent terminator


The topic of this paper is disadvantages of genetically modified (GM) food. It argues that genetically modified food is unfavorable for all population due to three primary reasons. First, developing GM food causes wealth distribution unequally. Second, it leads to unpredictable species extinction. Most of all, to consume GM food brings about unknown allergic condition.

Alternative sources of food can be best solution.

The topic of this paper is the argument about advantages of alternative foods. It argues that alternative sources of food give the world benefits rather than harms. There are three reasons for argument. The first is that alternative sources of food can solve some countries that have suffered starvation, and the second is that alternative sources of food can have more nutrients than other many of our better known sources of food. The third reason is that alternative sources of food can solve economy and business crisis in market.

Alternative sources of food can be best solution.

The topic of this paper is the argument about advantages of alternative foods. It argues that alternative sources of food give the world benefits rather than harms. There are three reasons for argument. The first is that alternative sources of food can solve some countries that have suffered starvation, and the second is that alternative sources of food can have more nutrients than other many of our better known sources of food. The third reason is that alternative sources of food can solve economy and business crisis in market.

Population Control Policies should not be put in Place

Can anyone live without other people? Can the people who live in this century believe that the population in the world becomes very little? What would happen if the population of USA becomes 5 or 10 million? Maybe, if one of these happens, many problems will appear. Therefore, population control policies should not be put in place because they cause many problems in the areas of security, family, and intellectual ideas.

First, population control policies cause many security problems. It could cause smaller army because we have not enough people. That is, all countries need to protect the border and to protect the people and give them safety in life. In addition, every country needs people for nutrient security. They talk more about labor force and big project in agriculture, industry, and trade. Security is very important to stay in a good life in this world and we need many soldiers to satisfy this security.

Moreover, population control policies cause many family problems. Parents need their children and grandchildren. For example, when parents become older, they need their child to support and to help them. Furthermore, parents need their children to help them in fields, companies, factories, and workshops. If one member of family becomes a candidate for parliament and he has a big family, they help him to gather many voters from friends and colleagues. Another example, if anyone in a family has a problem in money, the family collects for him. Therefore, a big family is better than a small family.

Lastly, population control policies cause many problems for intellectual ideas, too. The government needs many people to apply some big projects. More people have more ideas and the government can take many good ideas from the people. For example, the president of a big country is not the same as another president of a small country. The first has many consultants while the second has one or two consultants. More consultants give more intellectual ideas such as People need many intellectual ideas for agricultural, industrial, education, and more fields are very important to human life. In other word, consultants can explain how we can use the rain in irrigation. Also they can explain how we can preindustrial the rubbish. Therefore, they need many people to apply these ideas and to be successful.

Proponents of the idea that population control policies should be put in place claim that population control policies will give good care and health, good education, and less crime. That is right, but who can say if we agree with population control policies should not be put in place, this agreement do not satisfies health care, good education, and less crime. Many countries have more increase rate in population and assuage good education, good care and health, and less crime. For example, USA has not any control for population and the government of USA encourages the immigration to it. Therefore, the earth need more people to live in it.

In conclusion, population control policies should not be put in place since there are many good planers in this world. Earth needs many projects to become good and useful and to do that we need many people work and live in this area. We need people to solve many problems such as security, family, and intellectual ideas. Some people expect that Japan, as an example, becomes a land without people in year 3000. So, the government in Japan must look to this problem and they must solve it now. Because of all the reason mentioned above, we must stand up with anyone who says the population control policies should not be put in place.

Aquaculture In The Future


The topic of this topic of this paper is about sustainable aquaculture in Korea. It argues that Korea should develop aquaculture as a potential food source of the future to solve the problems. There are four reasons for this argument. The first is that aquaculture has huge potential in Korea, and the second is that sea food is good for health. the third reason is that aquaculture industry brings economic benefits. Finally, aquaculture does not cause environmental problems.

By Young-ho Park

Finding aquaculture -David Kim-


The topic of this paper is aquaculture industry going to more developing in these days. It argues that aquaculture industry provide better food to people. There are three reasons for this argument. The first is that aquaculture makes good environment sense, and the second is aquaculture makes good health condition to people. The third reason is aquaculture industry makes good economic sense.

David Kim

David Kim's Weblog

Farmers’ Gifts

The topic of this paper is alternative antibiotics in animals to be used for food. It argues that farmers should not fed antibiotics in livestock for their benefits. There are four reasons for this argument. The first is that antibiotics in livestock would have bad influence for livestock’s health condition. Second, the meat that has antibiotics and antibiotic resistance bacteria could make human ill. Third, using antibiotics in livestock could made farmers even the countries loss a lot of money. Finally, using antibiotics in livestock is not the only way to increase the income for farmers.

Everything Is For You.


The topic of this paper is alternative farming practice, organic farming, for biodiversity. It argues organic farming should be supported as an alternative farming practices of the future. There are two reasons for this argument. First, organic foods have good quality and better tastes. Second, organic farming is an important part of the economy.

EAP2 A class
Jiyoung Lee

Educated killer

The article “Faculty Return to Northern Illinois University for Training to Help Students Cope With Campus Shooting” talks about the campus shooting happened in Northern Illinois University. According to a witness, she reminded that it is on Thursday in the lecture hall. Minutes before the end of the class, a stranger walked onto the stage. He pointed the shotgun at the student sitting in front of him in the large lecture hall and pulled the trigger. Then he aimed to himself …On this urgency, he killed 5 persons one of whom is the witness`s boyfriend and many people got wounded. The tragedy happened so sudden and unpredictable that most of the students sitting there thought that the gunman was there to make an announcement.
I am interesting in the article because the campus shooting is very common in the U.S. and it seems to be a “trend”. Then the question is that how can this happened? And nobody felt something before the tragedy happened. Neither his teacher, nor his classmates. Next, if we find so trails before it happened what should we do? To answer the first question I think one reason is that the university is careless with the students psychological problems and another reason is that the U.S. government are remiss in their duties that they are responsible to supervise the public of buying guns. Thus campus shooting happened many times around the American schools, colleges and universities.

Haoming Qin

Population problem in our world

The world is developing fast and population is developing fast too, now we have 60 6 billion people in the world. This news to be good for us, because we can have more friends and we can do a lot of things which need more people faster and better. Unfortunately, this is a bad news for human. When we have more population than means we will have more problems. The basic reason is we have no enough space and resources for humanity. People should control population growing now, because the world’s is resource is less and less, it will be easy have war and we needs good family life for everybody.
People face some of problems, one is the resource is less then before. And we needs save our resources and some of if can recycle we needs do it. There are two kinds of resources in the world, one is non renewable and the other one is renewable. However, we have too much population then we use a lot of resources, so now we needs control population then have lower population to use resources. We needs save more resources for our future. In the world, like the gas is non renewable, we needs save the gas for our future. In all of countries, we have a lot of people own cars , airplane and ships, so we use a lot of gas and now we needs pay more money to buy gas for our machines to move. And about renewable resources, we still waste too much. In the holiday, a lot of people needs send gift cards for other people, that paper are very good, so one holiday, the hole world will cut a lot of trees were turned into gift cards. So we save paper as same as we save tree, because tree can clean our air, make people health. So resources less than before is a warning for human, we needs pay attention at population and we need save our resources for future and our children, this is why we needs control population put in place.
Second, our world is very big, but most of places are water or ice and people can live in there, so we have a little space for human living. The population is still growing, and we people have less space for living. We needs control population growing, and save give people more space. In every big city, you have a big house that means you are rich, because house is too expensive, why? The reason is easy; we have too much people and less space. Some of countries their relationship is not good, because of land. They want to more land for their citizens and every country want to do this, so this will let our world have more war, this is why we needs control our population and save ourselves.
Third, like Europe, there are a lot of countries the population is zero. How population is growing so faster, because of developing countries. A lot of developing countries’ people they do not care how many people born in each family. A lot of people in developing countries are farmers and have no enough good education so they believe have more babies, future can have more people to work, but at the end of they needs more money to buy food and supplies. In China, before, the government said you can have many babies if you want, so in China now have a lot of people. Now government try to control the population, an d have a lot of plan for future, some of countries still have no any plan, like India, they still can let family have many babies, and a lot of people are very poor. So we needs control population and let people have more good family live.
Have more population in the family is good for family developing and be rich is very good idea and the more population can help country developing is good way. However these are not true. We can have more population can work for country rich and developing fast, if control population growing, we can have less people and have economy still in a small group. The more people in the world can have more fun, but space is not developing, we have same space and population is still growing, then we will fight with each other because of the land. The resource is less and less, more population use more resources, buy a lot of cars can show this country have more power and rich, it is not true. We use more resources and future we have nothing can use. So we needs control the population growing.
In conclusion, most people think if we have more babies, we can have good life and future, and it is good for developing and save time to do a lot of thins. In fact, a lot of people in developing countries or poor people think this is food and they still follow this way. In fact this is a wrong way to own the good life, because it just let you have dream in the future, and it will never became true. It will let our world have more problems such as resources less and less than before, the pollution and have no enough space. So now er have a lot of work to do, not only for country, but also for our home. We only have this space, and we can do something like recycle and plant the trees and help animals. We needs give us and our cildren a good place to live, do not at the future go to the museum, and use fossils to tell your children this is what kind of animals.

High technological in our lives

Now, the world is developing very fast, technological is developing fast too. A lot of things before are in the dream, and now it is easy to use it. Like people have dream can fly in the sky like the bird, but now you can take plan fly in the sky, people want to run fast like house, we have a car can help us. Now and future, people do not needs do a lot of things and machines can help people to do it, we can save our time and go to travel, and nobody will say tired. So now is the technological revolution a beneficial thing for the world? The answer is very clearly, we are very sure to say “yes”. People needs technological for help, can help people easy to communication and can let people being far away from illness.
The basic reason is everybody can know it, we needs machine to help people do a lot of things like build machine, in a lot of factories, we needs machine, and it will be easy to finished. Some of things for people is very difficult, it will be very hard and dangerous, nobody want to die, so machine can help us to fix. Now everyone have computer, it is not expensive than before, why? Because of machine, build CPU is very difficult for human, now it is automatically, machine can help to do it and better than human made. People want to go to friends live you very far away, you drive your car; do not know how to arrive there. It is time to use high technological. You need a GPS (Global Positioning System), satellite will tell you where you are now and how to get there, it is easy and do not use map when you drive. So high technological is very useful and powerful in humans live.
Second, human is a kind of animal needs live together, they cannot live alone, so we have languages to communication, and go to friends or relations house to visit, and let us have more fun, so if your friends live in another counties or other states, what should you do? high technological can help us, we have planes cars and a magic thing is Internet. These are people who use our ideas to find. We use these to help us travel and communication and nobody can say these are not useful. “There are a reported 105,170,327 active web surfers in the US and 165,745,689 people in total who have access”(Answer bank,2008).Internet is very powerful and useful, there are a lot of people use Internet every day, We can use Internet do a lot of things, use SKYPE and MSN to talk with friends and use Webcam to see each other online, and we use Internet to communication with people, see friends pictures online. High technological help people to close each other.
Third, people who feel not good, the first things is go to eat medicine, but before we have medicine, people have illness like heart attack, and a lot of illness, now high technological save peoples lives, we use medicines to make us health. Like heart attack is a big problem in the world, a lot of people have this problem, my friend’s father have heart attack, so everybody worried his father. Heart attack comes very fast, or we can say it comes very sudden. But now, we use high technological to made medicine and save people’s lives, and now a new test could give doctors a head start in diagnosing those patients most likely to suffer a heart attack (University of Leeds, 2007). This show us, people can live without high technological, we needs it everywhere.
High technological is very useful and powerful. It can give human a lot of help and make us can own an easy life. However, we still face a lot of problems, like high technological let people own cars, these are very good, but we forget pollution, and resources. We just use it and make human life easy and do not care earth, just do what we want, help us and forget others. Our technological is not very strong, and not well, sometimes we use it and do not care what happen in the future. Machines works can give us easy life, but what about all of things machines can do, what about us, we will be lazy and do not know a lot of things. That’s why we can use too much high technological.
It is very clear that people needs high technological to help. Our life can live without it. We need it to save our lives and make everything easy. the technological revolution a beneficial thing for the world is very good, but we still needs be more careful, and make it better and better, like find some ways we can stop pollution and give us a nice and clean world.

Answer Bank (n.d.) How many people use internet? The Answer Bank. Retrieved January 29, 2008, from:

University of Leeds, (n.d.) New heart test to save time, money and lives. The sciencedaily. Retrieved January 29, 2008, from

How Will Our Children Eat?

The topic of this paper is principles of sustainable agriculture. The paper says that the world has big environment problems and that these can be improved by sustainable agriculture. There are three reasons for this argument. First, sustainable agriculture conserves the soil. Second, its farming principles improve water quality. Finally, sustainable farming techniques conserve energy.
We all live on the earth. Therefore, all human beings have responsibility for the earth. To be sure, one important thing is that we should take care of the earth very carefully like a child. We have been given good environment so we have to return this for our children. Thus society should maintain clean air, clean water, good soil and good food for our offspring. Unfortunately since people have developed industrial life and modern lifestyle for better life, the earth has been damaged. This damage has many examples. There are air pollution problems, water pollution problems, soil depletion problems and overpopulation problems. Eventually these things could cause greater problems. These problems could be disease, hunger and social collapse because of lack of food and energy. These problems would affect everyone. Sustainable agriculture offers some solutions to these problems. Because of these solutions, sustainable agriculture is very important for all people. Sustainable agriculture will not solve all problems of environment. Unquestionably, it can solve part of the environmental problems. Sustainable agriculture involves many details and complex things to fix. However, there are three main simple factors that build sustainable agriculture. Sustainable agriculture farmers must be careful about the soil, water quality and usage of energy. If society can take care of these three situations, our descendents can live good lives.
“Sustainable agriculture is one that produces abundant food without depleting the earth’s resources or polluting its environment”(Earles, 2005,p.1). Sustainable agriculture involves many principles. It has three main goals. They are “environmental health, economic profitability and social and economic equity.”(Feenstra, 1997, p.1). In “Biodiversity : Sustaining Soils and producing Food” Jacks and Whyte (1994) say that between 1950 and 1984, the world’s food production increased three times. At the same time, “Conventional 20th Century agriculture took industrial production as its model” (Earles, p. 1). Thus, “The basic idea of industrial production is to produce large amounts of product” (Earles, p. 1). Also, industrial production thinking “treats the land like a mine”(Earles, p. 2). Production is taken from the land. Nothing is returned to the land. Little thought is given to the bad results that come with the production. “This industrialized agriculture uses a lot of energy, chemical fertilizers, chemical pesticides, and chemical herbicides”(Miller,1994, p.38). The result is a lot of food production. Also the result is destruction of soil, water pollution, air pollution and big dependence on energy. Principles of sustainable have solutions to these problems. Some people feel using these solutions is too expensive. Other people feel using these solutions is too difficult. In fact, sustainable farming principles are often simple to follow. They can be carried out simply and practically. They start with caring for the soil. If we care for the soil, we can prevent water pollution. At the same time we can save energy. Also we protect our food supply.
First, soil is the fundamental foundation for life (Miller, 1994, p. 33). Caring for it is the basis for sustainable agriculture. Soil is fragile. On average, the world is covered by less than three feet of soil (Paulson,2008, para. 2) and it is eroding quickly. David Montgomery, a geologist at the University of Washington says, "The estimate is that we are now losing about 1 percent of our topsoil every year to erosion, most of this caused by agriculture”(Paulson, 2008, Para.3). Soil is also easily damaged. Overuse of farm machinery compacts and hardens soil. Salinization ruins the land. Inorganic fertilizers and herbicides contaminate the soil by nitrates. Inorganic fertilizers are quickly used by plants. They are also quickly washed away from the ground by rain. They leave the soil without nutrition. The solution for these problems comes from sustainable farm management. Most topsoil erosion can be stopped with good farming habits. This means using perennial crops, not planting by streams, not over grazing (Earles, p.4). Soil damage can be avoided by using organic fertilizers, natural pest control (ladybugs), “minimum-tillage” methods and mulching (Earles, pp. 2-4). Avoiding erosion, and fixing soil damage let the soil recover its strength. These sustainable principles also help fix the problem of water pollution.
Second, water quality is a very important issue to sustainable agriculture. Plentiful good quality water is important because it is related to health of plants and all living creatures such as human beings, animals, birds and aquatic life. All life needs sufficient amounts of water. All life needs clean water. Bad water quality has bad health effects for all life. Not enough water also has bad effects for all life. Therefore we must be careful in our use of water. We must not overuse water. We must not pollute water. Too much irrigation depletes wells and causes salt water to form in wells. It also causes salinization of land. It also depletes rivers. This affects people, farming, aqualife and wildlife downstream. Surface run off from agriculture affects water resources. It carries contamination from fertilizers and salinization. One of the most important issues relevant to water quality is involved with salinization and contamination of ground and surface waters by pesticides, nitrates and heavy metals (Feenstra, p. 2). Nowadays people use large scaled dam or reservoirs for irrigation. Because irrigated land can produce crop productions that are two to three times greater than from rain –watering. (Miller,1994, p.34). However, irrigated water often contains dissolved salts. So it stops crop growth, reduce productivity, kills crop plants and ruins the land. Also surface runoff flows down rivers to the sea. There the chemical pollutants contaminate fish and kill algae. Algae are a big source of global oxygen. In “Red Tide and Harmful Algal Blooms”(2007) the author says that “ Phtoplankton are believed to generate as much as 80% of the world’s oxygen supply”(para.1). If we destroy ocean algae, we destroy big part of world’s oxygen supply. In order to protect water quality, sustainable agriculture uses the same solutions as for the soil problems. Organic fertilizers such as animal manure, green manure and compost can replace chemical fertilizers. This reduces need for machinery usage. According to the USDA publication, “Soil Quality Resource Concerns” (1996, p.2), less machinery use decreases the soil compaction. Therefore, looser soil is aerated. Therefore, water percolates through it easily. So soil does not erode and flow away easily. Furthermore, irrigation should match water supplies. According to the New York Times, “When fresh water is removed in large quantities, rainwater and streams cannot replenish the aquifers quickly enough, and salt water seeps in” (para. 4). Too much irrigation takes all the water from wells or from the rivers. It also causes salinization to the land. The two problems of saltwater seepage and salinization from irrigation should be minimized. Otherwise the soil is ruined for farming. Accordingly these ways for sustainable agriculture are simple and practical with regard to maintaining good environment.
Third, the sustainable principles of agriculture also focus on the energy usage. Today agriculture uses a lot of petro-chemical based energy. Heavy machinery uses a lot of energy. Most fertilizer is made from the petro-chemicals. Agriculture businesses ships food long distances. For example in Carbondale, now we have grapes from Chile, bananas from South America. All this uses lot of energy. The price of oil rises rapidly. According to Annual average domestic crude oil prices (2008), a barrel of oil cost $1.63 in 1946, $4.75 in 1973, $14.44 in 1986, and cost $11.91 in 1998. Furthermore, the Crude oil future prices-NYMEX shows it cost $100 in Dec of 2007(Wtrg Economics, 2008). High price of energy causes high agriculture prices. Over time unless we can replace oil, energy prices will go much higher. This may create a crisis for food prices. Once again, the solutions are the same as in soil and water. No till agriculture uses less machinery. This has result of using less energy. Green manure, mulch and organic fertilizers are not petro - chemical based. Finally growing and using locally produced food saves big transportation costs. For example, many fruits, vegetables and livestock are grown around Carbondale. In the past Southern Illinois had many apple, peach, strawberry, and cattle and hog farms. Still, today there are local farmers markets in Carbondale and Anna in the summer. Also still there are local butcher houses in Cobden and Dongola. We should buy and eat local products when possible. These things can be locally grown and used and sold locally in farmers markets. Then we don’t need big transportation. As energy becomes more expensive, life will change. We can either have crisis and then change or we can change before crisis comes.
Opponents say that using these solutions is unsustainable and impractical. They say that sustainable agriculture practices do not match the economy and the environment. However, these objections are not true because when people are really concerned about environmental values, they will deal with the earth seriously and carefully. Maintaining good care of soil is practical. Organic fertilizers and organic pest control like ladybugs are not expensive. Organic fertilizers such as leaves, animal manure and food wastes are usually wasted things. They do not cost a lot of money. Also ladybugs naturally produce themselves. On the other hand, chemical fertilizers and herbicides must be purchased. Therefore, if people do not use high priced fertilizers and pesticides, they can save money and keep good quality of soil and water. Furthermore, by maintaining soil by not overusing machinery such as tractors and cultivators, they reduce oil cost and prevent eroded soil due to compaction. When these strategies are combined and carried out enough, it will have good results for sustainable agriculture. Although opponents disagree with this ways now, they will soon know how practical and reasonable it is for in the long term.
In conclusion, nowadays some people are interested in sustainable agriculture. However, people’s past efforts in making abundant crops by overusing fertilizers and machinery and pesticides have resulted in big trouble between humans and environment. Rehabilitating the earth’s environment is not easy because it is now damaged. Nevertheless, caring for the earth is our responsibility because our children follow us. These ideas are practical, simple and functional way to sustain agriculture. They give our children a good future.


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The National Health Care System in South Korea

Everyone wants for health and wealth and fame. Unfortunately if people do not have good health, it is difficult to reach wealth and fame. In fact, no matter how much money people have, only if they continue to keep good health, can live in peaceful and enjoyable conditions. Everyone wants to have a better and longer life so people need good health care system. There are many countries with national health care systems. The look of these systems differ from country to country. “In 1976, the government of South Korea announced a plan and a timetable to achieve a universal health insurance plan.” (Center for Health Policy Research, 1992, p. 1). Accordingly, people have different thoughts about national health care system due to their personal experience. Thereafter the medical system has developed to benefit the nation. This program benefits many ways. The system is economical, is usable by everyone and it helps create culture stability.

The first of all, the national health care system is economical. Early care and preventative care is important part of national health care system. Early care reduces long health care problems. For example, if someone has diabetes, high blood pressure or heart disease, early treatment increases the patient’s life span and well health because they start medical care early. Therefore, people need less care because they are not terribly sick and preventative care is made from simple low cost items like high blood pressure medicines. Usually it is less expensive to treat someone with preventative medicine otherwise to put them in the hospital for emergency or long - term care. This early care and preventative care makes smaller sum to national health care costs. Hence National health care systems also save money for company employers. Because of preventative care, general health care of employees is often better. Therefore, employees are not absent at work much and this makes smaller costs to employers because they do not need to hire and train temporary employees or upset their business schedules. Thus, the South Korea national health care system treats health problems earlier before they become chronic or out of control. The result care is less overall costs to the government also more healthy and profitable workforce.

Secondly, the health care system is easily usable by everyone of Korea. This is to both the rich and the poor. It is so for several reasons. First, access to the national health care system is convenient. It is easy to find, check into and use most health care facilities. Also everyone is covered by a national health care system and everyone has a medical card that entitles them to care. Finally, most health care facilities will accept everyone with medical cards. Also there are lots of health care facilities. Likewise it is mostly easy to make an appointment. Finally, there is little paper work task to checking in. Secondly, after entering to a health care facility, the focus is on the patient’s wellbeing. For example, there is less worry about money because government pays for most medical fee. Consequently, patients have less stress under the pressure and can concentrate on feeling better not on worrying about money. When people hospitalize, they need someone to depend feel lonely so hospitals provide rooms with television and DVD for patients. However, they miss people such as their family, friends and neighbor. They want to talk and feel warm heart from them. Because of this reason hospitals prepare space for patient’s family in the same room. This is convenient both patients and their family members. When patients in hospital need to do something, they can ask to favor to their family members and also trust them if that errand is important or personal thing. For family members when they help patients, they need good food and a rest. Because taking care of patients takes lots of energy away from them. After patients eat food, family members food is served by hospitals. Food is well prepared and cheaper than outside restaurants. Therefore, they can eat nutritious food and take a rest for a while due to keeping indoors. As a result, patients can be relaxed with family members and family members also can stay with patients. This may help patients recover quickly and family members can keep saving time and good condition.

Lastly, the South Korean national health care system is good to national cultural stability. It makes stronger families and a stronger economy. Korean culture always stresses close families. Entire family, children, parents, aunts, uncles, siblings have a responsibility to help each others. This creates problem as medical care is very expensive. In the past, before introduction of national health care system, there were many bad happenings. People became sick and had no money. They sold their land, homes, cows, and gold marriage rings and sometimes people sold children as money for medical fees. People also lost their jobs and when they left hospital there were no place to live. Often whole families, aunts, uncles, grandparents gave up everything because of some sickness of relatives. These were bad things. The national health care system changed the bad things. Now people have securities about their future. They are less fearful of disaster because of any health problems. Also the system takes stress from families. It makes families stronger. Since because of workforce is healthier, the national life and culture has greater stableness. The economy is stronger because a work force is healthier, can work biggest hours, and is more reliable because of their best health. Healthy people are good workers. The well being people can pays taxes for government. The good health people can help children for homework. All these make society more stability.
Some opponents of the Korean national health care system claim the system has resulted in different problems. These are mostly problems of waste and poor use of health care money spending. Sometimes the national health care system has made too many doctors, nurses and employers related with in this field. “ The supply of medical doctors, mainly graduates from newly founded medical schools, has more than doubled from about 1400 new enrollees in 1976 to 3000 in 1994. In the same period, the number of beds rose from 64 to 318 per 100,000.”( Shin,1998, p.42). Finally, so there are too many people at medical facilities wanting to get job. So therefore there is unemployment with health care people. Health care people training costs big money. So this is a bad waste of money. However this could be worse. In South Korea we have plentiful work power such as many doctors, nurses, so many different parts of specialists. To be sure this helps people because everyone can meet doctor easily. Also there is another criticism. Often health care workers conduct is to treat patients or their family unkind and impolite. To be sure, this is not a good thing. But everywhere in every country some people do the rude thing. It means nothing about national health care system. These problems need to be improved. On the other hand they do not give good reason against the national health care system. Basic point is If people can not take advantage of this, a lot of people have to suffer from pain with some severe disease or light sickness. Waste of money and rudeness is not good. In any event it is more important to serve to human health. So opponents’ claim is just few problems compared to the benefits.

Summing up, the National health care system has brought many benefits and few disadvantages. Medical care is affordable to rich and poor persons. It is affordable to the country. And also medical care is convenient to find and to use for everyone. Finally, this contributes stronger culture attitude. The health care system gives the better life to people and develops medical study in medical department. This is the best method for human wellbeing. Some countries envy about this and Korean has much to be proud of in its health care system.


Shin, YS. (1998). Health care systems in transition 2. Korea, Part 1. An overview
of health care systems in Korea .Journal of Public Health Medicine, 20(1), 42. Retrieved January 31,2008, from http://

Lessons learned from the South Korean health care system. (1992, February).
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Cloned products

In Guterl’s (2008) magazine article, “ Would You Like Fries With Your Clone? ” the author talks about cloning and food. He says that Government, public, livestock industry, farmers, consumers, and researchers have many opinions about cloned food. First the author says U.S and EU food authorities says that the cloning practice has no harm to meat and milk. Second the author says that government organizations and public sometimes disagrees about safety of food from the clone animals. European people “harbor deep revulsion”(Guterl, F., p. 1) but Americans are “less bothered about biotechnology and food” (Guterl, F., p. 1). Third he says that the livestock industry likes cloning because of profit. On the other hand farmers are discouraged because of high cost. Fourth, Guteri says that researchers are not sure that cloned food is safe. Finally, he asks if consumers should be too much afraid of cloned food. In conclusion the author wonders about cloning will be banned because of bad publicity.

Food quality affects the health of everyone. Therefore animal cloning in food is an important subject. We don’t want society to make a mistake about cloning. At this time I disagree with cloning animals for food. I have three reasons. First, there is lack of research about cloning. Second, there is lack of public education about cloning. And third, there is lack of public discussion about cloning.

Reseach is very important. Now there is not enough cloning research. Guterl says that researchers have big questions about cloning. Good scientific research produces good information. People have confidence if they think information is honest. We need research from many institutions. Research is expensive. Therefore, the government it should give money to this research. The government should give money to many kinds of researchers. The government should give money to researchers of disliking cloning. The government should give money to researchers of liking cloning. Then there will be many research results. Then people can have a lot of information. The result is society can make clear thinking about cloning. Now there is not enough research. Therefore I cannot support cloning.

Public education about cloning is missing. This is why people are confused about cloning. Research facts should be used for education for public. Without public education, people cannot make the good decision. People need simple public information televison shows. People need simple research writings. People need understandable pamphlets. People don’t need complicated theory. People only need truthful simple ideas. The government and schools have responsibility. They should give non bias facts. Otherwise people listen only to television propaganda. Now the public lacks education about cloning. Therefore I cannot support cloning.

Public discussion follows public education. If people have good information, they can have good talking together. Also public discussion must be with respect and patience. Then people can share about their different ideas to each other. This idea sharing activity is very useful. If one person does respect to another, everyone grows respect of others. This respect to others encourages people to think deeply. This respect to others encourages people to be patient with each other also. Respect and patience are best way to learn new ideas. People don’t learn new thinking quickly. People learn quickly when they know the subject. But people don’t know cloning. So we must discuss slowly and fully. Now there is little public discussion about cloning. Society should only use cloning if public is educated and agree. Now society is not educated. Also society does not agree about cloning. Therefore I disagree with cloning.

In conclusion, using cloning maybe has many benefits. But now we researchers and consumers have questions (Guterl, F., p. 1) about cloning. People need more confidence in cloning. So we must be learning more about cloning. Then we must share our research thru public education. Then we can have good public discussion. Until public has good research, good public education, and good discussion about cloning, I disagree.


Guterl, F (2008). Would you like fries with your clone? Newsweek web exclusive.

Retrieved February 5, 2008 from